Harvesting Natural Populations
Historical exploitation of mollusks occurred worldwide in shallow coastal and freshwater systems, and artisanal fishing still takes place there. The simplest fisheries involve harvesting by hand or with simple tools. Thus marine bivalves and various snails exposed on rocky shores at low tides are harvested by hand, with mussels, oysters, limpets, and abalone pried from the rocks. Low tide on soft-substrate shores allows digging by hand to capture many shallow-dwelling species of burrowing clams. Some burrowing clams live more deeply or can burrow quickly when disturbed. Harvesting these requires a shovel, or a modified rake with long tines that can penetrate sediment quickly and be rotated so the tines retain the clam as the rake is pulled to the surface.
Mollusks living below low tide are usually captured by some sort of tool, the simplest being rakes and tongs. For example, oyster tongs used in estuaries like Chesapeake Bay (Fig. 1) have two wooden shafts, each with a half-cylinder, toothed, metal-rod basket bolted at one end and with a metal pin or rivet holding the shafts together like scissors. A harvester standing on the side of a shallow-draft boat lets the shafts slip through his hands (almost all harvesters are male) until the baskets reach the bottom and then moves the upper ends of the shafts back and forth to scrape oysters and shells into a pile. He closes the baskets on the pile and hoists the contents to the surface manually or by a winch, opening the baskets to dump the scraped material onto a sorting platform on the boat (see Fig. 1). Harvesters use hand tongs at depths up to about 10 m. Also in Chesapeake Bay, harvesters exploiting oysters living deeper than 10 m deploy much larger, heavier, and more efficient tongs from their boat's boom, using a hydraulic system to raise and lower the tongs and to close them on the bottom. In addition to capturing bivalves, rakes and hand tongs are used worldwide to harvest gastropods like whelks, conchs, and abalone (carnivorous gastropods like whelks and conchs can also be captured in pots baited with dead fish and other animals).
Mollusks can be captured by dredges towed over the bottom by boats, some powered by sail (Fig. 2) and others by engines (Fig. 3). Dredges harvest attached mollusks like oysters and marine mussels, as well as buried clams, scallops lying on or swimming just above the sea bottom, and some gastropods (whelks, conchs). Dredges are built of metal and usually have teeth on the leading edge that moves over the bottom. Captured material is retained in a sturdy mesh bag made of wear-resistant heavy metal rings linked together and attached to the dredge frame. Mesh size is usually regulated so that small mollusks can fall out of the bag and back onto the sea bottom.
Some dredges use powerful water jets to blow buried mollusks out of soft sediment and into a metal-mesh bag. Where the water is shallow enough, subtidal clams (and oysters in some regions) are harvested by such water jets, but instead of being captured in a mesh bag the clams are blown onto a wire-mesh conveyor belt that carries them to the surface alongside the boat. Harvesters pick legal-sized clams off the mesh as they move past on the belt. Mesh size is such that undersized clams and small debris fall through the belt and return to the bottom while everything else continues up the belt and falls back into the water if not removed by the harvester.
Commercial harvesting of freshwater mussels in the United States since the late 1800s has taken advantage of the propensity of bivalves to close their shells tightly when disturbed. Harvest vessels tow “brails” over the bottom. Brails are long metal rods or galvanized pipe with eyebolts at regular intervals. Wire lines are attached to the eyebolts by snap-swivels. Each line holds a number of “crowfoot” hooks of various sizes and numbers of prongs, depending on the species being harvested. Small balls are formed on the end of each prong so that, when the prong tip enters between the partially opened valves of the mussel, the valves close on the prong and the ball keeps the prong from pulling free of the shell. When the brails are brought on deck the clinging mussels are removed. This method works best in river systems with few snags (tree stumps, rocks, trash) that would catch and hold the hooks.
Cephalopods are captured by trawls, drift nets, seines, scoop and cast nets, pots and traps, and hook and line. A traditional gear is the squid jig, which takes various shapes but which has an array of barbless hooks attached. Jigs are moved up and down in the water to attract squid, which grab the jig and ensnare their tentacles, allowing them to be hauled into the boat. In oceanic waters, large vessels using automated systems to oscillate the jig in the water may deploy over 100 jig lines, each bearing 25 jigs. Such vessels fish at night, with lights used to attract squid to the fishing boat. A typical vessel may carry 150 metal-halide, incandescent lamps that together produce 300 kW of light. Lights from concentrations of vessels in the global light-fishing fleet off China and south-east Asia, New Zealand, the Peruvian coast, and southern Argentina can be detected by satellites. With a crew of 20, a vessel as described above may catch 25–30 metric tons of squid per night.
Some harvesters dive for Cyrus X Black Hoodie Miley Converse mollusks, especially solitary organisms of high market value such as pearl oysters and abalone. Breath-hold diving has been used for centuries, but most divers now use SCUBA or air-delivery (hookah) systems. Diving is efficient because divers can see their prey, whereas most other capture methods fish “blind.” Unfortunately, although diving allows for harvesting with minimal damage to the habitat, it has led to the depletion or extinction of some mollusk populations such as those of abalone.
A variety of measures are in place around the world to regulate mollusk fisheries. A common regulation involves setting a minimum size for captured animals that is larger than the size at which individuals of the species become capable of reproducing. This regulation ensures that most individuals can spawn at least once before being captured. Size selection is often accomplished by use of a regulated mesh size in dredge bags or conveyor-belts as described earlier. If the animals are harvested by a method that is not size selective, such as tonging for oysters or brailing for freshwater mussels, then the harvester is usually required to cull undersized individuals from the accumulated catch (see Hoodie Black X Miley Converse Cyrus Fig. 1 for the culling platform used by oyster tongers) and return them to the water, usually onto the bed from which they were taken. Oysters are measured with a metal ruler; freshwater mussels are culled by attempting to pass them through metal rings of legal diameter and keeping those that cannot pass through.
Other regulatory mechanisms include limitations as to the number of harvesters allowed to participate in the fishery, the season when harvesting can occur, the type of harvest gear that can be used, or the total catch that the fishery is allowed to harvest. There may be areas of a species’ range that are closed to harvest, perhaps when the region has many undersized juveniles or when beds of large adults are thought to be in need of protection so that they can serve as a source of spawn for the surrounding region. Restrictions may spread the capture effort over a harvest season to prevent most of the harvest from occurring at the start of the season, with a corresponding market glut that depresses prices. Finally, managers may protect a fishery by regulations mandating inefficiencies in harvest methods. Thus, in Maryland's Chesapeake Bay, diving for oysters has been strictly regulated because of its efficiency. Similarly, the use of a small yawl (Fig. 2) to push sailboat dredgers is allowed only on 2 days per week (the days chosen—usually days without wind—are at the captain's discretion). Dredging must be done under sail on the remaining 3 days of the week (harvesting is not allowed on Saturday or Sunday). Around the world, inspectors (“marine police”) are empowered to ensure that regulations are followed, either by boarding vessels at sea or when they dock with their catch.
A great hindrance to informed management of molluskan (and other) fisheries is the lack of data on the quantity of organisms taken by noncommercial (recreational) harvesters. For example, in Maryland's Chesapeake Bay one can gather a bushel (around 45 L) of oysters per day in season without needing a license if the oysters are for personal use. Clearly it is impossible to determine how many of these bushels are harvested during a season in a sizeable body of water. If such harvests are large, the total fishing mortality for the species can be greatly underestimated, complicating efforts to use fishery models to manage the fishery.
Processing mollusks involves mainly shore-based facilities, except for deep-sea cephalopod (mostly squid) fisheries where processing, including freezing, is done on board, and for some scallop species (the large muscle that holds scallop shells shut is usually cut from the shell at sea, with the shell and remaining soft body parts generally discarded overboard). Thus the catch may be landed on the same day it is taken (oysters, freshwater and marine mussels, many clams and gastropods) or within a few days (some scallop and clam fisheries). If the catch is not frozen, ice is used to prevent spoilage at sea.
Suspension-feeding mollusks (mostly bivalves) can concentrate toxins from pollutants or poisonous algae and thereby become a threat to human health. If such mollusks are harvested, they have to be held in clean water for a period of time to purge themselves of the toxin (if that is possible). Thus they may be re-laid on clean bottom or held in shore-based systems (“depuration facilities”) that use ozone or UV light to sterilize the water that circulates over the mollusks. Relaying and reharvesting the mollusks or maintaining the land-based systems adds to labor, energy, and capital costs.